NoSQL and Relational Data Stores

by Jerome Carter on October 29, 2013

Updated October 19, 2017     (Page is updated monthly on the 19th. For more frequent resource alerts, follow EHR Science on Twitter:@ehrscience.)

McMurtry D, Oakley A, Sharp J, Subramanian M,  Zhang H. Data Access for Highly-Scalable Solutions: Using SQL, NoSQL, and Polyglot Persistence.  Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press; 2013  

Robinson, Ian, James Webber, and Emil Eifrem. Graph Databases. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, 2013.

Fowler, Martin, and Pramod Sadalage J. NoSQL Distilled: A Brief Guide to the Emerging World of Polyglot Persistence. Boston, Mass. ; London: Addison-Wesley, 2012.  

Redmond, Eric, Jim Wilson R., and Jacquelyn Carter. Seven Databases in Seven Weeks: A Guide to Modern Databases and the NoSQL Movement. Dallas, TX: Pragmatic shelf, 2012.

Hoffer, Jeffrey A., V. Ramesh, and Heikki Topi. Modern Database Management.   Harlow: Pearson Education, 2012

Direct links are provided for the leading product in each of the four major categories.   More direct links may be added over time, but only if I actually use the database.  PostgresSQL is included because it is an object-relational database with extended capabilities.  The information sites listed provide links to all major products.

MongoDB (document)
Neo4J (graph)
Redis (key-value)
Cassandra (wide-column)
PostgresSQL (object-relational plus handles JSON)

Information Sites
NoSQL Databases
DB Engine
NoSQL Wikipedia

Investigating NoSQL for EHR Systems: MongoDB
Exchanging Data with JSON
Database Shopping

Key Articles
Loper D, Klettke M,  Bruder I,  Heuer A.  Enabling flexible integration of healthcare information using the entity-attribute-value storage model. Health Information Science & Systems 2013 1:9.

Schmitt O, Majchrzak TA.  Using Document-Based Databases for Medical Information Systems in Unreliable Environments. 9th  In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information  Systems for Crisis Response and Management.  (Eds. L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej and Z. Franco, 2012)

Kent W.  A Simple Guide to Five Normal Forms in Relational Database Theory.  Communications of the ACM 26(2), Feb. 1983, 120-125.

Kuo TT, Kim HE, Ohno-Machado L. Blockchain distributed ledger technologies for biomedical and health care applications. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2017 Nov 1;24(6):1211-1220.

Balaur I, Saqi M, Barat A, Lysenko A, Mazein A, Rawlings CJ, Ruskin HJ, Auffray C. EpiGeNet: A Graph Database of Interdependencies Between Genetic and Epigenetic Events in Colorectal Cancer. J Comput Biol. 2017 Oct;24(10):969-980.

Wang X, Williams C, Liu ZH, Croghan J. Big data management challenges in health research-a literature review. Brief Bioinform. 2017 Aug 7.

Angraal S, Krumholz HM, Schulz WL. Blockchain Technology: Applications in Health Care. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2017 Sep;10(9).

Ichikawa D, Kashiyama M, Ueno T. Tamper-Resistant Mobile Health Using Blockchain Technology. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2017 Jul 26;5(7):e111.

Benchoufi M, Ravaud P. Blockchain technology for improving clinical research quality. Trials. 2017 Jul 19;18(1):335.

Hoy MB. An Introduction to the Blockchain and Its Implications for Libraries and Medicine. Med Ref Serv Q. 2017 Jul-Sep;36(3):273-279.

Yli-Huumo J, Ko D, Choi S, Park S, Smolander K. Where Is Current Research on Blockchain Technology?-A Systematic Review. PLoS One. 2016 Oct 3;11(10):e0163477.

Sánchez-de-Madariaga R, Muñoz A, Lozano-Rubí R, Serrano-Balazote P, Castro AL, Moreno O, Pascual M. Examining database persistence of ISO/EN 13606 standardized electronic health record extracts: relational vs. NoSQL approaches. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2017 Aug 18;17(1):123.

Celesti A, Maria F, Romano A, Bramanti A, Bramanti P, Villari M. An OAIS-based Hospital Information System on the Cloud: Analysis of a NoSQL Column-Oriented Approach. IEEE J Biomed Health Inform. 2017 Mar 10. [E]
Delussu G, Lianas L, Frexia F, Zanetti G. A Scalable Data Access Layer to Manage Structured Heterogeneous Biomedical Data. PLoS One. 2016 Dec 9;11(12):e0168004.

Schulz WL, Nelson BG, Felker DK, Durant TJ, Torres R. Evaluation of relational and NoSQL database architectures to manage genomic annotations. J Biomed Inform. 2016 Dec;64:288-295.

Wang S, Mares MA, Guo YK. CGDM: collaborative genomic data model for molecular profiling data using NoSQL. Bioinformatics. 2016 Dec 1;32(23):3654-3660.

M. Guo, K. Qian and L. Yang, “Hands-On Labs for Learning Mobile and NoSQL Database Security,” 2016 IEEE 40th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC), Atlanta, GA, 2016, pp. 606-607.

P. Gómez, R. Casallas and C. Roncancio, “Data schema does matter, even in NoSQL systems!,” 2016 IEEE Tenth International Conference on Research Challenges in Information Science (RCIS), Grenoble, 2016, pp. 1-6.

M. J. Mior, K. Salem, A. Aboulnaga and R. Liu, “NoSE: Schema design for NoSQL applications,” 2016 IEEE 32nd International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), Helsinki, Finland, 2016, pp. 181-192.

M. T. González-Aparicio, M. Younas, J. Tuya and R. Casado, “A New Model for Testing CRUD Operations in a NoSQL Database,” 2016 IEEE 30th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA), Crans-Montana, 2016, pp. 79-86.

Wang S, Mares MA, Guo YK. CGDM: Collaborative Genomic Data Model for Molecular Profiling Data Using NoSQL. Bioinformatics. 2016 Aug 13.  [E].

Goli-Malekabadi Z, Sargolzaei-Javan M, Akbari MK. An effective model for store and retrieve big health data in cloud computing. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2016 Aug;132:75-82.

Ferreira Junior JR, Oliveira MC, de Azevedo-Marques PM. Cloud-Based NoSQL Open Database of Pulmonary Nodules for Computer-Aided Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Reproducible Research. J Digit Imaging. 2016 Jul 20. [E]

Hofer IS, Gabel E, Pfeffer M, Mahbouba M, Mahajan A. A Systematic Approach to Creation of a Perioperative Data Warehouse. Anesth Analg. 2016 Jun;122(6):1880-4.

Santillana M, Nguyen AT, Louie T, Zink A, Gray J, Sung I, Brownstein JS. Cloud-based Electronic Health Records for Real-time, Region-specific Influenza Surveillance. Sci Rep. 2016 May 11;6:25732.

Freire SM, Teodoro D, Wei-Kleiner F, Sundvall E, Karlsson D, Lambrix P. Comparing the Performance of NoSQL Approaches for Managing Archetype-Based Electronic Health Record Data. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 9;11(3)

Gabetta M, Limongelli I, Rizzo E, Riva A, Segagni D, Bellazzi R. BigQ: a NoSQL based framework to handle genomic variants in i2b2. BMC Bioinformatics. 2015 Dec 29;16(1):415.

Wu AW, White SM, Blackford AL, Wolff AC, Carducci MA, Herman JM, Snyder CF; PatientViewpoint Scientific Advisory Board. Improving an electronic system for measuring PROs in routine oncology practice. J Cancer Surviv. 2015 Dec 7. [E]

Aniceto R, Xavier R, Guimarães V, Hondo F, Holanda M, Walter ME, Lifschitz S. Evaluating the Cassandra NoSQL Database Approach for Genomic Data Persistency. Int J Genomics. 2015;2015:502795.

Salehi A, Jimenez-Berni J, Deery DM, Palmer D, Holland E, Rozas-Larraondo P, Chapman SC, Georgakopoulos D, Furbank RT. SensorDB: a virtual laboratory for the integration, visualization and analysis of varied biological sensor data. Plant Methods. 2015 Dec 8;11:53

Santos Simões de Almeida LH, Costa Oliveira M. A Medical Image Backup Architecture Based on a NoSQL Database and Cloud Computing Services. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2015;216:929.

Kimura E, Ishihara K. Virtual file system on NoSQL for processing high volumes of HL7 messages. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2015;210:687-91.

Gorton, I.; Klein, J., “Distribution, Data, Deployment: Software Architecture Convergence in Big Data Systems,” Software, IEEE , vol.32, no.3, pp.78,85, May-June 2015

Bhogal, Jagdev; Choksi, Imran, “Handling Big Data Using NoSQL,” Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2015 IEEE 29th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.393,398, 24-27 March 2015

Kaur, Karamjit; Rani, Rinkle, “Managing Data in Healthcare Information Systems: Many Models, One Solution,” Computer , vol.48, no.3, pp.52,59, Mar. 2015

John Klein, Ian Gorton, Neil Ernst, Patrick Donohoe, Kim Pham, and Chrisjan Matser. 2015. Performance Evaluation of NoSQL Databases: A Case Study. In Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Performance Analysis of Big Data Systems (PABS ’15). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 5-10.

Wang S, Pandis I, Wu C, He S, Johnson D, Emam I, Guitton F, Guo Y. High Dimensional biological data retrieval optimization with NoSQL technology. BMC Genomics. 2014 Nov 13;15 Suppl 8:S3. [New]

Moore, P.; Qassem, T.; Xhafa, F., “‘NoSQL’ and Electronic Patient Record Systems: Opportunities and Challenges,” P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing (3PGCIC), 2014 Ninth International Conference on , vol., no., pp.300,307, 8-10 Nov. 2014

Ningthoujam SS, Choudhury MD, Potsangbam KS, Chetia P, Nahar L, Sarker SD, Basar N, Das Talukdar A. NoSQL data model for semi-automatic integration of ethnomedicinal plant data from multiple sources. Phytochem Anal. 2014 Nov-Dec;25(6):495-507.

Gudivada, V.N.; Rao, D.; Raghavan, V.V., “NoSQL Systems for Big Data Management,” Services (SERVICES), 2014 IEEE World Congress on , vol., no., pp.190,197, June 27 2014-July 2 2014

Zahid, A; Masood, R.; Shibli, M.A, “Security of sharded NoSQL databases: A comparative analysis,” Information Assurance and Cyber Security (CIACS), 2014 Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,8, 12-13 June 2014

Bastiao Silva, L.A; Beroud, L.; Costa, C.; Oliveira, J.L., “Medical imaging archiving: A comparison between several NoSQL solutions,” Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI), 2014 IEEE-EMBS International Conference on , vol., no., pp.65,68, 1-4 June 2014.

Moerbe M, Kelemen A. Turning Electronic Health Record Data Into Meaningful Information Using SQL and Nursing Informatics. Comput Inform Nurs. 2014 Jul 9. [E]

Deka, Ganesh Chandra, “A Survey of Cloud Database Systems,” IT Professional , vol.16, no.2, pp.50,57, Mar.-Apr. 2014

Wojciech Golab, Muntasir R. Rahman, Alvin AuYoung, Kimberly Keeton, and Xiaozhou (Steve) Li. 2014. Eventually consistent: not what you were expecting?. Commun. ACM 57, 3 (March 2014), 38-44.

Kanade, A.; Gopal, A.; Kanade, S., “A study of normalization and embedding in MongoDB,” Advance Computing Conference (IACC), 2014 IEEE International , vol., no., pp.416,421, 21-22 Feb. 2014

Robert Campbell McColl, David Ediger, Jason Poovey, Dan Campbell, and David A. Bader. 2014. A performance evaluation of open source graph databases. In Proceedings of the first workshop on Parallel programming for analytics applications (PPAA ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 11-18.

Roijackers J, Fletcher GHL. On bridging relational and document-centric data stores.  In  Proceedings of the 29th British National conference on Big Data (BNCOD’13), Georg Gottlob, Giovanni Grasso, Dan Olteanu, and Christian Schallhart (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg,  135-148.  2013

Lizhi Cai; Shidong Huang; Leilei Chen; Yang Zheng, “Performance analysis and testing of HBase based on its architecture,” Computer and Information Science (ICIS), 2013 IEEE/ACIS 12th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.353,358, 16-20 June 2013

Li, Yishan; Manoharan, Sathiamoorthy, “A performance comparison of SQL and NoSQL databases,” Communications, Computers and Signal Processing (PACRIM), 2013 IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on , vol., no., pp.15,19, 27-29 Aug. 2013

Zhao, Gansen; Huang, Weichai; Liang, Shunlin; Tang, Yong, “Modeling MongoDB with Relational Model,” Emerging Intelligent Data and Web Technologies (EIDWT), 2013 Fourth International Conference on , vol., no., pp.115,121, 9-11 Sept. 2013

Yunkai Liu; Vitolo, T.M., “Graph Data Warehouse: Steps to Integrating Graph Databases Into the Traditional Conceptual Structure of a Data Warehouse,” Big Data (BigData Congress), 2013 IEEE International Congress on , vol., no., pp.433,434, June 27 2013-July 2 2013

Florescu, D.; Fourny, G., “JSONiq: The History of a Query Language,” Internet Computing, IEEE , vol.17, no.5, pp.86,90, Sept.-Oct. 2013

Butler, D.M., “Scientific Computing Doesn’t Need noSQL,” High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (SCC), 2012 SC Companion: , vol., no., pp.1301,1302, 10-16 Nov. 2012

Lombardo, S.; Di Nitto, E.; Ardagna, D., “Issues in Handling Complex Data Structures with NoSQL Databases,” Symbolic and Numeric Algorithms for Scientific Computing (SYNASC), 2012 14th International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.443,448, 26-29 Sept. 2012

Dan Han; Stroulia, E., “A three-dimensional data model in HBase for large time-series dataset analysis,” Maintenance and Evolution of Service-Oriented and Cloud-Based Systems (MESOCA), 2012 IEEE 6th International Workshop on the , vol., no., pp.47,56, 24-24 Sept. 2012

Indrawan-Santiago, M., “Database Research: Are We at a Crossroad? Reflection on NoSQL,” Network-Based Information Systems (NBiS), 2012 15th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.45,51, 26-28 Sept. 2012

Cure, O.; Kerdjoudj, F.; Chan Le Duc; Lamolle, M.; Faye, D., “On the Potential Integration of an Ontology-Based Data Access Approach in NoSQL Stores,” Emerging Intelligent Data and Web Technologies (EIDWT), 2012 Third International Conference on , vol., no., pp.166,173, 19-21 Sept. 2012

Diaz, M.; Juan, G.; Lucas, O.; Ryuga, A., “Big Data on the Internet of Things: An Example for the E-health,” Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing (IMIS), 2012 Sixth International Conference on , vol., no., pp.898,900, 4-6 July 2012

Zhou Wei; Pierre, G.; Chi-Hung Chi, “Scalable Join Queries in Cloud Data Stores,” Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGrid), 2012 12th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.547,555, 13-16 May 2012

Chao-Rui Chang; Meng-Ju Hsieh; Jan-Jan Wu; Po-Yen Wu; Pangfeng Liu, “HSQL: A Highly Scalable Cloud Database for Multi-user Query Processing,” Cloud Computing (CLOUD), 2012 IEEE 5th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.943,944, 24-29 June 2012

Carniel, A.C.; de Aguiar Sa, A.; Brisighello, V.H.P.; Ribeiro, M.X.; Bueno, R.; Ciferri, R.R.; de Aguiar Ciferri, C.D., “Query processing over data warehouse using relational databases and NoSQL,”Informatica (CLEI), 2012 XXXVIII Conferencia Latinoamericana En , vol., no., pp.1,9, 1-5 Oct. 2012

Guoxi Wang; Jianfeng Tang, “The NoSQL Principles and Basic Application of Cassandra Model,” Computer Science & Service System (CSSS), 2012 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1332,1335, 11-13 Aug. 2012

Boicea, A.; Radulescu, F.; Agapin, L.I., “MongoDB vs Oracle — Database Comparison,” Emerging Intelligent Data and Web Technologies (EIDWT), 2012 Third International Conference on , vol., no., pp.330,335, 19-21 Sept. 2012

von der Weth, C.; Datta, A., “Multiterm Keyword Search in NoSQL Systems,” Internet Computing, IEEE , vol.16, no.1, pp.34,42, Jan.-Feb. 2012

Okman, L.; Gal-Oz, N.; Gonen, Y.; Gudes, E.; Abramov, J., “Security Issues in NoSQL Databases,” Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom), 2011 IEEE 10th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.541,547, 16-18 Nov. 2011

Hecht, R.; Jablonski, S., “NoSQL evaluation: A use case oriented survey,” Cloud and Service Computing (CSC), 2011 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.336,341, 12-14 Dec. 2011

Zhu Wei-ping; Li Ming-xin; Chen Huan, “Using MongoDB to implement textbook management system instead of MySQL,” Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN), 2011 IEEE 3rd International Conference on , vol., no., pp.303,305, 27-29 May 2011

Tudorica, B.G.; Bucur, C., “A comparison between several NoSQL databases with comments and notes,” Roedunet International Conference (RoEduNet), 2011 10th , vol., no., pp.1,5, 23-25 June 2011

Dooms, S.; De Pessemier, T.; Martens, L., “A File-Based Approach for Recommender Systems in High-Performance Computing Environments,” Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA), 2011 22nd International Workshop on , vol., no., pp.529,533, Aug. 29 2011-Sept. 2 2011

Jing Han; Haihong, E.; Guan Le; Jian Du, “Survey on NoSQL database,” Pervasive Computing and Applications (ICPCA), 2011 6th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.363,366, 26-28 Oct. 2011
Leavitt, N., “Will NoSQL Databases Live Up to Their Promise?,” Computer , vol.43, no.2, pp.12,14, Feb. 2010