EHR Architecture and Design

by Jerome Carter on March 25, 2013

Updated  February 26, 2017  (Page is updated monthly on the 26th. For more frequent resource alerts, follow EHR Science on Twitter:@ehrscience.)

The Architecture and Design page has been created to serve as a resource for those who are interested in building  EHR systems and/or  understanding how they work.  To that end, I have included links to EHR standards,  open source projects, and programming/technology information.   Data exchange, decision support,  and content-related materials (e.g. SNOMED, LOINC) are  included only if they directly address issues encountered when designing and building systems.


Freeman E, Freeman E, Bates B, Sierra K, Robson E. Head First Design Patterns. 2004

McLaughlin BD, Pollice G, West D. Head First Object-Oriented Analysis and Design. 2006

Microsoft Application Architecture Guide, Second Edition. 2009

Bass L, Clements P, Kazman R. Software Architecture in Practice, Third Edition. 2012

Resource Pages
 EHR Data Quality
NoSQL and Relational Databases 

Object Mentor Resources – Great information on object-oriented programminf and software design
Software Engineering Institute – Among other things, offers a range of resources on software architecture
The Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK) – Provides a great overview of the main issues/areas of software engineering

A Robust Health Data Infrastructure, 2014

Report of the AMIA EHR 2020 Task Force on the Status and Future Direction of EHRs. 2015
JASON Report Task Force Final Report, 2014 

EHR  Architecture and Design

EHR Standards
Clinical Decision Support Initiative
Children’s Electronic Health Record Format

American Society of Testing Materials
E31 Standards

Food and Drug Administration
Mobile Medical Applications – Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff, 2013

Health Level Seven
EHR Functional Profiles

International Standards Organization (ISO)
TC 25 Health Informatics Standards

Health information technology:  certification criteria, 2014 edition
2014 Certification Test Methods

Specification documents

Open Source Projects
Open EMR
Open MRS


Designing Clinical Care Systems – a look at the issues and principles associated with creating electronic systems that intimately support clinical care.
Building Clinical Care Software Systems, Part I: Issues and Challenges
Building Clinical Care Software Systems, Part II: Patient Information
Building Clinical Care Software Systems, Part III: The Electronic Health Record
Building Clinical Care Software Systems, Part IV: Process Information
Building Clinical Care Software Systems, Part V: Supporting Clinical Work

Audit Trails and Data Access – these posts discuss  MU audit requirements and audit trail design.
EHR Design, Timelines, and Audit Trails: Getting a Sense of What Has Happened
EHR Design Basics: Tracking Data Changes and Accesses

Representational State Transfer – the basics of REST
Coming to REST, Part I: Complexity in EHR Systems
Coming to REST, Part II: It’s All About Resources


From Idea to System: A Story of Architecture and Design
Coupling and Cohesion: A View of Software Design from the Inside Out
Software Architecture and Design, First Steps
Rethinking the Design of Electronic Health Record Systems
What If EHRs Were More Like Content Management Systems?
Moving Beyond Paper-based Thinking in EHR Design
Requirements, Usability, and Petri Nets

Architecture and Design
Motifs in EHR Research
The EHR As an Object Worthy of Study
EHRs and Architectural Styles, Peeking Under the Hood
Investigating NoSQL for EHR Systems: MongoDB
Exchanging Data with JSON
SaaS EHRs, MVC, Flexibility and Innovation

Data Quality
Wrestling with EHR Data Quality
EHR Data Accuracy—Should You Be Concerned?

Clinical Algorithms and Data Structures
From Data to Data + Processes: A Different Way of Thinking about EHR Software Design
The Informaticist-Programmer Interface: What Do You Mean By That…?
Making Clinical Concepts Computable
The Nuances of Clinical Data
Null Codes: A Mechanism for Understanding the Reasons for Missing EHR Data Values

Key Articles
Sittig DF, Wright A. What makes an EHR “open” or interoperable? J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Jun 15. [E]

Sittig DF, Murphy DR, Smith MW, Russo E, Wright A, Singh H. Graphical Display of Diagnostic Test Results in Electronic Health Records: A Comparison of 8 Systems. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Mar 18. [E]

Sinsky CA, Beasley JW, Simmons GE, Baron RJ. Electronic health records: design, implementation, and policy for higher-value primary care. Ann Intern Med. 2014 May 20;160(10):727-8.

Krist AH, Beasley JW, Crosson JC, Kibbe DC, et al. Electronic health record functionality needed to better support primary care. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2014 Jan 15. [E]

Hyppönen H, Saranto K, Vuokko R, Mäkelä-Bengs P, Doupi P, Lindqvist M, Mäkelä  M. Impacts of structuring the electronic health record: A systematic review protocol and results of previous reviews. Int J Med Inform.  2013 Dec 8. [E] 

Xiaomu Zhou, Kai Zheng, Mark Ackerman, and David Hanauer. 2012. Cooperative documentation: the patient problem list as a nexus in electronic health records. In Proceedings of the ACM 2012 conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW ’12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 911-920.

Bisbal J, Berry D. An analysis framework for electronic health record systems. Interoperation and collaboration in shared healthcare. Methods Inf Med. 2011;50(2):1809. 

Blobel B, Pharow P. Analysis and evaluation of EHR approaches. Methods Inf Med. 2009;48(2):162-9.

Greenhalgh T, Potts HW, Wong G et al. (2009) . Tensions and paradoxes in electronic patient record research: a systematic literature review using the meta-narrative method. Milbank Q vol. 87, (4) 729-788.  

Miller J.  Cohesion and Coupling. MSDN Magazine. October 2008. 

Häyrinen K, Saranto K, Nykänen P. Definition, structure, content, use and impacts of electronic health records: a review of the research literature. Int J  Med Inform. 2008 May;77(5):291-304.  

[New  January 27 – February 26, 2017]  [E] = e-pub date
Alsaffar M, Yellowlees P, Odor A, Hogarth M. The State of Open Source Electronic Health Record Projects: A Software Anthropology Study. JMIR Med Inform. 2017 Feb 24;5(1):e6.

Sim LL, Ban KH, Tan TW, Sethi SK, Loh TP. Development of a clinical decision support system for diabetes care: A pilot study. PLoS One. 2017 Feb 24;12(2):e0173021.

Mazer LM, Storage T, Bereknyei S, Chi J, Skeff K. A Pilot Study of the Chronology of Present Illness: Restructuring the HPI to Improve Physician Cognition and Communication. J Gen Intern Med. 2017 Feb;32(2):182-188.

Alanazi A. Incorporating Pharmacogenomics into Health Information Technology, Electronic Health Record and Decision Support System: An Overview. J Med Syst. 2017 Feb;41(2):19.

Valdez RS, Guterbock TM, Fitzgibbon K, Williams IC, Wellbeloved-Stone CA, Bears JE, Menefee HK. From loquacious to reticent: understanding patient health information communication to guide consumer health IT design. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2017 Jan 9. [E]

Swan D, Hannigan A, Higgins S, McDonnell R, Meagher D, Cullen W. Development and implementation of a ‘Mental Health Finder’ software tool within an electronic medical record system. Ir J Med Sci. 2017 Jan 3. [E]

Shade C, Kelly K, Hofmann K. Addressing the Unique Needs of an Electronic Health Record in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2016 Dec 12. [E]

Giles SJ, Reynolds C, Heyhoe J, Armitage G. Developing a patient-led electronic feedback system for quality and safety within Renal PatientView. J Ren Care. 2016 Dec 19. [E]

Hicks JK, Dunnenberger HM, Gumpper KF, Haidar CE, Hoffman JM. Integrating pharmacogenomics into electronic health records with clinical decision support. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016 Dec 1;73(23):1967-1976.

Fragidis LL, Chatzoglou PD, Aggelidis VP. Integrated Nationwide Electronic Health Records system: Semi-distributed architecture approach. Technol Health Care. 2016 Nov 14;24(6):827-842.

Schindler-Ruwisch JM, Abroms LC, Bernstein SL, Heminger CL. A content analysis of electronic health record (EHR) functionality to support tobacco treatment. Transl Behav Med. 2016 Oct 31. [E]

John Wilson H, Dasgupta K, Michael K. Implementation of the Agitated Behavior Scale in the Electronic Health Record. Rehabil Nurs. 2016 Oct 24. [E]

Demski H, Garde S, Hildebrand C. Open data models for smart health interconnected applications: the example of openEHR. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2016 Oct 22;16(1):137.

Roldán-García MD, García-Godoy MJ, Aldana-Montes JF. Dione: An OWL representation of ICD-10-CM for classifying patients’ diseases. J Biomed Semantics. 2016 Oct 13;7(1):62.

Demski H, Garde S, Hildebrand C. Open data models for smart health interconnected applications: the example of openEHR. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2016 Oct 22;16(1):137.

Kunz A, Pohlmann S, Heinze O, Brandner A, Reiß C, Kamradt M, Szecsenyi J, Ose D. Strengthening Interprofessional Requirements Engineering Through Action Sheets: A Pilot Study. JMIR Hum Factors. 2016 Oct 18;3(2):e25.

Chen CC, Chang CH, Peng YC, Poon SK, Huang SC, Li YC. Effect of implementation of a coded problem list entry subsystem. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2016 Oct;134:1-9.

Lin CH, Lo YC, Hung PY, Liou DM. Building Chronic Kidney Disease Clinical Practice Guidelines Using the openEHR Guideline Definition Language. Methods Inf Med. 2016 Sep 2;55(5). [E]

Ellouze AS, Bouaziz R, Ghorbel H. Integrating semantic dimension into openEHR archetypes for the management of cerebral palsy electronic medical records. J Biomed Inform. 2016 Aug 24. [E]

Dalal AK, Schnipper J, Massaro A, Hanna J, Mlaver E, McNally K, Stade D, Morrison C, Bates DW. A web-based and mobile patient-centered “microblog” messaging platform to improve care team communication in acute care. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016 Aug 18. [E]

Cook DA, Teixeira MT, Heale BS, Cimino JJ, Del Fiol G. Context-sensitive decision support (infobuttons) in electronic health records: a systematic review. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016 Aug 7. [E]

Lingren T, Chen P, Bochenek J, Doshi-Velez F, Manning-Courtney P, Bickel J, Wildenger Welchons L, Reinhold J, Bing N. Electronic Health Record Based Algorithm to Identify Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder. PLoS One. 2016 Jul 29;11(7):e0159621.

Jariwala SP, Keskin T, Achar K, Henner J, Talla G, Rosenstreich DL, Santana C. Developing and pilot testing an electronic medical record-based allergen immunotherapy template. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016 Aug;117(2):206-8. [E]

Blumenthal KG, Park MA, Macy EM. Redesigning the allergy module of the electronic health record. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016 Aug;117(2):126-31.

Mishuris RG, Yoder J, Wilson D, Mann D. Integrating data from an online diabetes prevention program into an electronic health record and clinical workflow, a design phase usability study. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2016 Jul 11;16:88.

González-Ferrer A, Peleg M, Marcos M, Maldonado JA. Analysis of the process of representing clinical statements for decision-support applications: a comparison of openEHR archetypes and HL7 virtual medical record. J Med Syst. 2016 Jul;40(7):163.

Fragidis LL, Chatzoglou PD, Aggelidis VP. Integrated nationwide electronic health records system: Semi-distributed architecture approach. Technol Health Care. 2016 Jul 1. [E]

Alpert JM, Krist AH, Aycock RA, Kreps GL. Designing User-Centric Patient Portals: Clinician and Patients’ Uses and Gratifications. Telemed J E Health. 2016 Jun 22. [E]

Fisher HM, Hoehndorf R, Bazelato BS, Dadras SS, King LE Jr, Gkoutos GV, Sundberg JP, Schofield PN. DermO; an ontology for the description of dermatologic disease. J Biomed Semantics. 2016 Jun 13;7:38.

Pantazos K, Lauesen S, Lippert S. Preserving medical correctness, readability and consistency in de-identified health records. Health Informatics J. 2016 May 19. [E]

Santillana M, Nguyen AT, Louie T, Zink A, Gray J, Sung I, Brownstein JS. Cloud-based Electronic Health Records for Real-time, Region-specific Influenza Surveillance. Sci Rep. 2016 May 11;6:25732.

Sarzynski E, Hashmi H, Subramanian J, Fitzpatrick L, Polverento M, Simmons M, Brooks K, Given C. Opportunities to improve clinical summaries for patients at hospital discharge. BMJ Qual Saf. 2016 May 6.

Mukherjee M, Wyatt JC, Simpson CR, Sheikh A. Usage of allergy codes in primary care electronic health records: a national evaluation in Scotland. Allergy. 2016 May 5. [E]

Lyon AR, Lewis CC, Boyd MR, Hendrix E, Liu F. Capabilities and Characteristics of Digital Measurement Feedback Systems: Results from a Comprehensive Review. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2016 May;43(3):441-66.

Bruns EJ, Hyde KL, Sather A, Hook AN, Lyon AR. Applying User Input to the Design and Testing of an Electronic Behavioral Health Information System for Wraparound Care Coordination. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2016 May;43(3):350-68.

Madkour M, Benhaddou D, Tao C. Temporal data representation, normalization, extraction, and reasoning: A review from clinical domain. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2016 May;128:52-68.

Christensen B, Ellingsen G. Evaluating Model-Driven Development for large-scale EHRs through the openEHR approach. Int J Med Inform. 2016 May;89:43-54.

Zhang YF, Gou L, Tian Y, Li TC, Zhang M, Li JS. Design and Development of a Sharable Clinical Decision Support System Based on a Semantic Web Service Framework. J Med Syst. 2016 May;40(5):118.

Yasnoff WA. A Secure and Efficiently Searchable Health Information Architecture. J Biomed Inform. 2016 Apr 21. [E]

Ellsworth MA, Dziadzko M, O’Horo JC, Farrell AM, Zhang J, Herasevich V. An appraisal of published usability evaluations of electronic health records via systematic review. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016 Apr 23. [E]

Milberg JA. Development, Use, and Integration of a Nationally-Distributed HIV/AIDS Electronic Health Information System. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016 Apr 23. pii: ocv212. [E]

de Bono B, Helvensteijn M, Kokash N, Martorelli I, Sarwar D, Islam S, Grenon P, Hunter P. Requirements for the formal representation of pathophysiology mechanisms by clinicians. Interface Focus. 2016 Apr 6;6(2):20150099.

Koppel R. The health information technology safety framework: building great structures on vast voids. BMJ Qual Saf. 2016 Apr;25(4):218-20.

Cho I, Kim E, Choi WH, Staggers N. Comparing usability testing outcomes and functions of six electronic nursing record systems. Int J Med Inform. 2016 Apr;88:78-85.

Warner JL, Rioth MJ, Mandl KD, Mandel JC, Kreda DA, Kohane IS, Carbone D, Oreto R, Wang L, Zhu S, Yao H, Alterovitz G. SMART precision cancer medicine: a FHIR-based app to provide genomic information at the point of care. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016 Mar 27. [E]

Topaz M, Seger DL, Goss F, Lai K, Slight SP, Lau JJ, Nandigam H, Zhou L. Standard Information Models for Representing Adverse Sensitivity Information in Clinical Documents. Methods Inf Med. 2016 Mar 21;55(2):151-7.

Palojoki S, Mäkelä M, Lehtonen L, Saranto K. An analysis of electronic health record-related patient safety incidents. Health Informatics J. 2016 Mar 7. [E]

Monsen KA, Finn RS, Fleming TE, Garner EJ, LaValla AJ, Riemer JG. Rigor in electronic health record knowledge representation: Lessons learned from a SNOMED CT clinical content encoding exercise. Inform Health Soc Care. 2016 Mar;41(2):97-111.

Oniki TA, Zhuo N, Beebe CE, Liu H, Coyle JF, Parker CG, Solbrig HR, Marchant K, Kaggal VC, Chute CG, Huff SM. Clinical element models in the SHARPn consortium. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016 Mar;23(2):248-56.

Lin C, Dligach D, Miller TA, Bethard S, Savova GK. Multilayered temporal modeling for the clinical domain. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016 Mar;23(2):387-95.

Mandel JC, Kreda DA, Mandl KD, Kohane IS, Ramoni RB. SMART on FHIR: a standards-based, interoperable apps platform for electronic health records. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016 Feb 17. [E]

Lourenco LM, Bursua A, Groo VL. Automatic Errors: A Case Series on the Errors Inherent in Electronic Prescribing. J Gen Intern Med. 2016 Feb 16. [E]

Jensen LG, Bossen C. Factors affecting physicians’ use of a dedicated overview interface in an electronic health record: The importance of standard information and standard documentation. Int J Med Inform. 2016 Mar;87:44-53.

van Engen-Verheul MM, Peute LW, de Keizer NF, Peek N, Jaspers MW. Optimizing the user interface of a data entry module for an electronic patient record for cardiac rehabilitation: A mixed method usability approach. Int J Med Inform. 2016 Mar;87:15-26.

Mandel JC, Kreda DA, Mandl KD, Kohane IS, Ramoni RB. SMART on FHIR: astandards-based, interoperable apps platform for electronic health records. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016 Feb 17. [E]

Malhotra S, Cheriff AD, Gossey JT, Cole CL, Kaushal R, Ancker JS. Effects of an e-Prescribing interface redesign on rates of generic drug prescribing: exploiting default options. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016 Feb 17. [E]

Menendez ME, Janssen SJ, Ring D. Electronic health record-based triggers to detect adverse events after outpatient orthopaedic surgery. BMJ Qual Saf. 2016 Jan;25(1):25-30.

Zhang YF, Tian Y, Zhou TS, Araki K, Li JS. Integrating HL7 RIM and ontology for unified knowledge and data representation in clinical decision supporsystems. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2016 Jan;123:94-108.

Park HS, Cho H, Kim HS. Development of a Multi-Agent m-Health Application Based on Various Protocols for Chronic Disease Self-Management. J Med Syst. 2016 Jan;40(1):36.

Vogel M, Kaisers W, Wassmuth R, Mayatepek E. Analysis of Documentation Speed Using Web-Based Medical Speech Recognition Technology: Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Internet Res. 2015 Nov 3;17(11):e247.

Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). 2015 Edition Health Information Technology (Health IT) Certification Criteria, 2015 Edition Base Electronic Health Record (EHR) Definition, and ONC Health IT Certification Program Modifications. Final rule. Fed Regist. 2015 Oct 16;80(200):62601-759.

Faria-Campos AC, Hanke LA, Batista PH, Garcia V, Campos SV. An innovative electronic health records system for rare and complex diseases. BMC Bioinformatics. 2015;16 Suppl 19:S4.

Balatsoukas P, Williams R, Davies C, Ainsworth J, Buchan I. User Interface Requirements for Web-Based Integrated Care Pathways: Evidence from the Evaluation of an Online Care Pathway Investigation Tool. J Med Syst. 2015 Oct 7. [E]

Kasthurirathne SN, Mamlin B, Kumara H, Grieve G, Biondich P. Enabling Better Interoperability for HealthCare: Lessons in Developing a Standards Based Application Programing Interface for Electronic Medical Record Systems. J Med Syst. 2015 Oct 7. [E]

Strauss AT, Martinez DA, Garcia-Arce A, Taylor S, Mateja C, Fabri PJ, Zayas-Castro JL. A user needs assessment to inform health information exchange design and implementation. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2015 Oct 12;15(1):81.

Azad TD, Kalani M, Wolf T, Kearney A, Lee Y, Flannery L, Chen D, Berroya R, Eisenberg M, Park J, Shuer L, Kerr A, Ratliff JK. Building an electronic health record integrated quality of life outcomes registry for spine surgery. J Neurosurg Spine. 2015 Oct 2:1-10. [E]

Hartman DJ, Pantanowitz L. Safety Assurance Factors for Electronic Health Record Resilience (SAFER) Guidelines. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015 Oct;139(10):1201-4.

Wright A, McCoy AB, Hickman TT, Hilaire DS, Borbolla D, Bowes WA 3rd, Dixon WG, Dorr DA, Krall M, Malholtra S, Bates DW, Sittig DF. Problem list completeness in electronic health records: A multi-site study and assessment of success factors. Int J Med Inform. 2015 Oct;84(10):784-90.

Murphy DR, Thomas EJ, Meyer AN, Singh H. Development and Validation of Electronic Health Record-based Triggers to Detect Delays in Follow-up of Abnormal Lung Imaging Findings. Radiology. 2015 Oct;277(1):81-7.

Li CT, Weng CY, Lee CC, Wang CC. A Hash Based Remote User Authentication and Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System. J Med Syst. 2015 Nov;39(11):144.

Shivade C, Malewadkar P, Fosler-Lussier E, Lai AM. Comparison of UMLS terminologies to identify risk of heart disease using clinical notes. J Biomed Inform. 2015 Sep 12. [E]

Salmasian H, Tran TH, Chase HS, Friedman C. Medication-indication knowledge bases: a systematic review and critical appraisal. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Sep 2. [E]

Troiano D, Jones MA, Smith AH, Chan RC, Laegeler AP, Le T, Flynn A, Chaffee BW. ASHP Guidelines on the Design of Database-Driven Clinical Decision Support: Strategic Directions for Drug Database and Electronic Health Records Vendors. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2015 Sep 1;72(17):1499-505.

Kho AN, Cashy JP, Jackson KL, Pah AR, Goel S, Boehnke J, Humphries JE, Kominers SD, Hota BN, Sims SA, Malin BA, French DD, Walunas TL, Meltzer DO, Kaleba EO, Jones RC, Galanter WL. Design and implementation of a privacy preserving electronic health record linkage tool in Chicago. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Sep;22(5):1072-80.

McCoy AB, Wright A, Sittig DF. Cross-vendor evaluation of key user-defined clinical decision support capabilities: a scenario-based assessment of certified electronic health records with guidelines for future development. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Sep;22(5):1081-8.

Sittig DF, Wright A. What makes an EHR “open” or interoperable? J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Sep;22(5):1099-101.

Pivovarov R, Elhadad N. Automated methods for the summarization of electronic health records. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Sep;22(5):938-47.

Mir O, van der Weide T, Lee CC. A Secure User Anonymity and Authentication Scheme Using AVISPA for Telecare Medical Information Systems. J Med Syst. 2015 Sep;39(9):89.

Yoo S, Lee KH, Baek H, Ryu B, Chung E, Kim K, Yi JC, Park SB, Hwang H. Development and User Research of a Smart Bedside Station System toward Patient-Centered Healthcare System. J Med Syst. 2015 Sep;39(9):86.

Pelayo S, Ong M. Human Factors and Ergonomics in the Design of Health Information Technology: Trends and Progress in 2014. Yearb Med Inform. 2015 Aug 13;10(1):75-8.

Monsen KA, Finn RS, Fleming TE, Garner EJ, LaValla AJ, Riemer JG. Rigor in electronic health record knowledge representation: lessons learned from a SNOMED CT clinical content encoding exercise. Inform Health Soc Care. 2015 Aug 21:1-15. [E]

Brown DL, Landman A. Interoperable Application Programming Interfaces Can Enable Health Information Technology Innovation. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Aug;66(2):213-4.

Zahabi M, Kaber DB, Swangnetr M. Usability and Safety in Electronic Medical Records Interface Design: A Review of Recent Literature and Guideline Formulation. Hum Factors. 2015 Aug;57(5):805-34.

Kopanitsa G. Evaluation Study for an ISO 13606 Archetype Based Medical Data Visualization Method. J Med Syst. 2015 Aug;39(8):82.

Alterovitz G, Warner J, Zhang P, Chen Y, Ullman-Cullere M, Kreda D, Kohane IS. SMART on FHIR Genomics: Facilitating standardized clinico-genomic apps. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Jul 21. [E]

McInnes DK, Fix GM, Solomon JL, Petrakis BA, Sawh L, Smelson DA. Preliminary needs assessment of mobile technology use for healthcare among homeless veterans. PeerJ. 2015 Jul 30;3:e1096.

Santos Simões de Almeida LH, Costa Oliveira M. A Medical Image Backup Architecture Based on a NoSQL Database and Cloud Computing Services. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2015;216:929.

Bazemore AW, Cottrell EK, Gold R, Hughes LS, Phillips RL, Angier H, Burdick TE, Carrozza MA, DeVoe JE. “Community Vital Signs”: Incorporating geocoded social determinants into electronic records to promote patient and population health. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Jul 13. [E]

Moreno-Conde A, Jódar-Sánchez F, Kalra D. Requirements for clinical information modelling tools. Int J Med Inform. 2015 Jul;84(7):524-36.

Richardson JE, Vest JR, Green CM, Kern LM, Kaushal R; HITEC Investigators. A needs assessment of health information technology for improving care coordination in three leading patient-centered medical homes. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Jul;22(4):815-20.

Moreno-Conde A, Moner D, Cruz WD, Santos MR, Maldonado JA, Robles M, Kalra D. Clinical information modeling processes for semantic interoperability of electronic health records: systematic review and inductive analysis. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Jul;22(4):925-34.

Liu Z, Chen Y, Tang B, Wang X, Chen Q, Li H, Wang J, Deng Q, Zhu S. Automatic de-identification of electronic medical records using token-level and character-level conditional random fields. J Biomed Inform. 2015 Jun 26. [E]

Wang HQ, Zhou TS, Zhang YF, Chen L, Li JS. Research and Development of Semantics-based Sharable Clinical Pathway Systems. J Med Syst. 2015 Jun 13. [E]

Bruns EJ, Hyde KL, Sather A, Hook AN, Lyon AR. Applying User Input to the Design and Testing of an Electronic Behavioral Health Information System for Wraparound Care Coordination. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2015 Jun 10. [[E]

Dugas M. ODM2CDA and CDA2ODM: Tools to convert documentation forms between EDC and EHR systems. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2015 May 26;15(1):40.

Baudendistel I, Winkler E, Kamradt M, Eckrich F, Heinze O, Bergh B, Szecsenyi J, Ose D. Personal Electronic Health Records: Understanding User Requirements and Needs in Chronic Cancer Care. J Med Internet Res. 2015 May21;17(5):e121.

Nogueira JR, Cook TW, Cavalini LT. Mapping a Nursing Terminology Subset to openEHR Archetypes. A Case Study of the International Classification for Nursing Practice. Methods Inf Med. 2015 May 11;54(3):271-5.

Raghu A, Praveen D, Peiris D, Tarassenko L, Clifford G. Engineering a mobile health tool for resource-poor settings to assess and manage cardiovascular disease risk: SMARThealth study. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2015 Apr 29;15(1):36.

Kopanitsa G, Veseli H, Yampolsky V. Development, implementation and evaluation of an information model for archetype based user responsive medical data visualization. J Biomed Inform. 2015 Apr 29. [E]

Bosca D, Maldonado JA, Moner D, Robles M. Automatic generation of computable implementation guides from clinical information models. J Biomed Inform. 2015 Apr 21.[E]

Oh S, Cha J, Ji M, Kang H, Kim S, Heo E, Han JS, Kang H, Chae H, Hwang H, Yoo S. Architecture Design of Healthcare Software-as-a-Service Platform for Cloud-Based Clinical Decision Support Service. Healthc Inform Res. 2015 Apr;21(2):102-10. [E]

Weir CR, Staggers N, Gibson B, Doing-Harris K, Barrus R, Dunlea R. A qualitative evaluation of the crucial attributes of contextual Information necessary in EHR design to support patient-centered medical home care. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2015 Apr 16;15(1):30. [E]

Pivovarov R, Elhadad N. Automated Methods for the Summarization of Electronic Health Records. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Apr 15. [E]

Gellert GA, Ramirez R, Webster SL. The rise of the medical scribe industry: implications for the advancement of electronic health records. JAMA. 2015 Apr 7;313(13):1315-6.

Gabriel PE, Gronkiewicz C, Diamond EJ, French KD, Christodouleas J. Capturing structured, pulmonary disease-specific data elements in electronic health records. Chest. 2015 Apr 1;147(4):1152-60.

Zahabi M, Kaber DB, Swangnetr M. Usability and Safety in Electronic Medical Records Interface Design: A Review of Recent Literature and Guideline Formulation. Hum Factors. 2015 Mar 23. [E]

Sittig DF, Murphy DR, Smith MW, Russo E, Wright A, Singh H. Graphical Display of Diagnostic Test Results in Electronic Health Records: A Comparison of 8 Systems. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Mar 18. [E]

Fung KW, Xu J. An exploration of the properties of the CORE problem list subset and how it facilitates the implementation of SNOMED CT. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Feb 26. [E]

Yu PP. Knowledge Bases, Clinical Decision Support Systems, and Rapid Learning in Oncology. J Oncol Pract. 2015 Feb 24. [E]

Legaz-Garcia MD, Menerguez-Tortosa M, Fernandez-Breis JT, Chute CG, Tao C. Transformation of standardized clinical models based on OWL technologies: from CEM to OpenEHR archetypes. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Feb 10. [E]

Chow M, Beene M, O’Brien A, Greim P, Cromwell T, DuLong D, Bedecarr D. A nursing information model process for interoperability. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Feb 5. [E]

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